南非種族隔離

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南非種族隔離南非語:Apartheid,隔絕也,制度也,一九四八年至一九九〇年代初施行於南非西南非洲納米比亞,以隔種界。人口登籍法,種族隔離諸法所恃也,一九九一年官令廢焉。[一][二]一九九四年,南非大選,不辨種界,方得政府之不持種族主義者。[三]南非之種族隔離,以威服之風行政,以白人種尊為基,以使白人寡眾而馭國之政治、群系、食貨也。[四]其等之加於群也,以白人公民為尊,次亞裔色人,次黑人[四]制度所遺於群貨者,其流至今。[五][六][七]種族隔離,有廣有微:微者,以種別公器、集會也;廣者,以種定居所、工闕所歸。[八]先一九四〇年,種族隔離已肇端於白人之以寡馭眾,別黑人於他種,及後則定關符法、施隔離於分畝也;[九][一〇]至一九四八年大選,國民黨執政,官立為策。[一一]法定種界等級,十八世紀荷蘭帝國殖民於南非時始有之;先是,荷蘭殖民已隙於各民所出、克里奧爾化之奴隸也。[一二]後十九世紀末十年,英屬開普殖民地日庶,工業日振,種界之法,曩所馳者,復始益嚴,鍾乎黑人。[一三]布爾共和國,其法亦別種界:若德蘭士瓦憲法,絕黑人、色人於政、教焉。[一四]種族隔離諸法,立法最先者,一九四九年異種通婚禁案,其後曰悖德案,施於一九五〇年;自此,南非人異種通婚、結合,幾咸非法。[一五]一九五〇年人口登籍案,辨南非人為四類,曰黑人、白人、色人、印度人,其後二者復各辨為數類云。[一六]人之所居,以種界定之。[一五]自一九六〇年,至一九八三年,非裔黑人,迫於隔離之法,見徙於隔種之里者,有三百五十萬,近代寰宇,徙人之巨,鮮堪較者。[一七]其徙也,以限黑人於十「群祖地」,或曰「班圖斯坦」也,其四號稱自立而國。[一五]官府吿以見徙者銷其南非國籍,以化於班圖斯坦故。[八]種族隔離一策,南非內外,非者甚眾,二十世紀之大風潮,由是起者數。[一八]聯合國譴難頻仍,兵、貨禁運,遂加於南非焉。[一九]一九七十年代至一九八十年代,南非國內,隔離之抗日武,國民黨官府遂以暴鎮之;抗者派系之爭,亦興干戚,數千人死、囚於是。[二〇]種族隔離之改革,如迎印度有色二種代表之入議會者,而抗會多不服之。[二一]自一八八七年,至一九九三年,國民黨與非洲人國民大會商議。非洲人國民大會者,抗種族隔離諸群之首。商議者,以廢隔離,啟眾治也。[二一][二二]一九九〇年,官府釋非洲人國民大會顯人於囚,如納爾遜曼德拉者。[二三]一九九一年七月十七日,種族隔離諸法廢焉,[二]俟一九九四年四月不辨種界之普選也。[二四]

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